A disease is any abnormal condition that negatively affects the functioning or structure of a micro-organism, and this isn’t because of any direct external injury to the organism. Diseases are frequently understood to be associated with certain anatomical signs and symptoms. However, these signs and symptoms are considered normal by most people, yet still cause concern and investigation as to their origin and meaning. It’s a common thought among physicians and scientists alike that diseases are a result of deviation from normal function of some sort. For instance, the common cold is not a common disease, yet the symptoms it produces are usually easily recognizable by those who have experienced them.
Viral infections are considered to be an example of infectious diseases, although not all viruses trigger these symptoms. Some infections, however, can spread from one organism to another. Distinct kinds of bacteria and other organic compounds also fall under this category. The most common infectious diseases include influenza, measles, syphilis, hepatitis, diphtheria, cholera, poliomyelitis, rabies, pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, measles, mumps, strep throat, mononucleosis and hepatitis B.
An organism may be noncommunicable or communicable depending on how it begins its spread. Noncommunicable diseases, as their name suggests, are transmitted from one person to another without the use of some form of open or closed medical device such as breathing air or blood transfusion. These diseases are usually caused by parasites such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungus, as well as by cells of the immune system.
One type of communicable disease is that which may become airborne or through direct contact such as touching, or sharing utensils, etc. with an individual or an object contaminated with the disease. Furthermore, animals are also susceptible to disease. Animals can contract several different types of diseases. These include common viral illnesses like measles and chicken pox; gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea or dysentery; bloodstream infections like tuberculosis and typhoid fever, and others.
One more common type of communicable disease is cardiovascular disease. Coronary heart disease can cause death if left untreated. This kind of illness results from a buildup of cholesterol deposits in the arteries that drain blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Affected by this kind of disease are more than thirty million people and is known to cause fatal consequences. Some cardiovascular diseases may become contagious among pregnant women.
A lot of disability claims arise each year due to genetic disorders that are linked to a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, cancer, HIV and other infectious diseases. There are some rarer genetically-caused illnesses that also result in disability. In a case scenario, the affected individual has limited capacity for carrying out day-to-day functions due to the disability. In these cases, the disease requires long-term care, medical and social support from family members.